Closed to semi-closed canopies found in association with rivers and with hydric mucky soils. Fire rare.
Alluvial forest -
Occur in river floodplains on low elevation levees that are slightly above floodplain swamp. Distinguished by occurence of water hickory (Carya aquatica), overcup oak (Quercus lyrata), swamp laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), American elm (Ulmus Americana), water locust (Gledistsia aquatic), and river birch (Betula nigra). Soils flood during river floods but do not contain standing water during dry portion of the year. Differes from basin swamp by having less flooding and/or standing water.
Distinguished by a canopy of spruce pine (Pinus glabra), loblolly (Pinus taeda), water oak (Quercus nigra), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua). Differs from basin swamp and flooplain forest by rarely flooding. May be associated with with rivers or smaller bodies of water and isolated inland.
Distingusihed by a canopy containing buttressed trees including bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens) and swamp tupelo (Nyssa biflora). Water source precipitation and to a lesser extent river flooding. Floods more than bottomland but not as much as floodplain swamp.
Distinguished by location on lowest portion of river floodplain and a canopy containing buttressed trees including bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), swamp tupelo (Nyssa biflora), or Ogeechee tupelo (Nyssa ogechee). Water source precipitation and river flooding with seasonal and prolonged flooding.